Model Model Pembangunan Ekonomi Regional

Model Model Pembangunan Ekonomi Regional

Process and policies to improve economic well-being

Transport Development Pathways.png

In the economics study of the public sector,
economic and social development
is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an private are improved co-ordinate to targeted goals and objectives.

The term has been used oftentimes in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. “Modernization”, “Westernization”, and especially “industrialization” are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Historically, economical development policies focused on industrialization and infrastructure; since the 1960s, information technology has increasingly focused on poverty reduction.[i]

Whereas economical evolution is a policy intervention aiming to improve the well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and increases in GDP; economist Amartya Sen describes economic growth as but “one aspect of the process of economical evolution”. Economists primarily focus on the growth aspect and the economy at large, whereas researchers of customs economic development business themselves with socioeconomic development as well.

Definition and terminology


The precise definition of economical development has been contested: while economists in the 20th century viewed evolution primarily in terms of economic growth, sociologists instead emphasized broader processes of change and modernization.[two]
Evolution and urban studies scholar Karl Seidman summarizes economic development as “a process of creating and utilizing physical, human, financial, and social assets to generate improved and broadly shared economic well-existence and quality of life for a customs or region”.[3]
Daphne Greenwood and Richard Holt distinguish economic development from economic growth on the basis that economic development is a “broadly based and sustainable increase in the overall
standard of living
for individuals within a community”, and measures of growth such as per capita income do not necessarily correlate with improvements in quality of life.[four]
Economical development is a wider concept and has qualitative dimensions. Economic evolution implies economic growth plus progressive changes in certain of import variables which decide the well-being of the people, e.thousand: health, educational activity. The University of Iowa’s Center for International Finance and Evolution states that:

‘Economical development’ is a term that practitioners, economists, politicians, and others have used frequently in the 20th century. The concept, notwithstanding, has been in existence in the Westward for centuries. Modernization, Westernisation, and particularly Industrialisation are other terms people have used while discussing economic development. Economical evolution has a directly relationship with the environment.

Though the concept’s origin is uncertain, some scholars argue that development is closely bound up with the evolution of capitalism and the demise of feudalism.[five]
Others link it to the postcolonial land.[vi]

Mansell and Wehn as well state that economic evolution has been understood by not-practitioners since the World War II to involve economic growth, namely the increases in per capita income, and (if currently absent) the attainment of a standard of living equivalent to that of industrialized countries.[seven]
Economical development can also be considered as a static theory that documents the country of an economic system at a certain time. Co-ordinate to Schumpeter and Backhaus (2003), the changes in this equilibrium land documented in economic theory can only exist caused by intervening factors coming from the exterior.[ix]



Economic evolution originated in the post-state of war menses of reconstruction initiated by the United States. In 1949, during his inaugural speech, President Harry Truman identified the evolution of undeveloped areas equally a priority for the west:

“More than than half the people of the world are living in conditions budgeted misery. Their nutrient is inadequate, they are victims of the disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more than prosperous areas. For the first fourth dimension in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these people … I believe that nosotros should make available to peace-loving people the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in club to assist them realize their aspirations for a better life… What we envisage is a plan of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing … Greater product is the key to prosperity and peace. And the primal to greater production is a wider and more than vigorous application of modem scientific and technical cognition.”

There have been several major phases of evolution theory since 1945. Alexander Gerschenkron argued that the less developed the country is at the offset of economical development (relative to others), the more than likely certain conditions are to occur. Hence, all countries practice not progress similarly.[10]
From the 1940s to the 1960s the state played a big office in promoting industrialization in developing countries, following the idea of modernization theory. This period was followed by a brief period of basic needs development focusing on man capital evolution and redistribution in the 1970s. Neoliberalism emerged in the 1980s pushing an agenda of free trade and removal of import commutation industrialization policies.

Baca :   Peran Agroindustri Dalam Pembangunan Ekonomi Pdf

In economics, the study of economic development was borne out of an extension to traditional economic science that focused entirely on national product, or the aggregate output of goods and services. Economic development was concerned with the expansion of people’s entitlements and their corresponding capabilities, morbidity, nourishment, literacy, educational activity, and other socio-economical indicators.[eleven]
Borne out of the backdrop of Keynesian economics (advocating government intervention), and neoclassical economics (stressing reduced intervention), with the rise of high-growth countries (Singapore, South korea, Hong Kong) and planned governments (Argentina, Chile, Sudan, Republic of uganda), economic development and more generally development economic science emerged amidst these mid-20th century theoretical interpretations of how economies prosper.[12]
Also, economist Albert O. Hirschman, a major correspondent to evolution economics, asserted that economic development grew to concentrate on the poor regions of the world, primarily in Africa, Asia and Latin America withal on the outpouring of fundamental ideas and models.[xiii]

It has likewise been argued, notably by Asian and European proponents of infrastructure-based development, that systematic, long-term regime investments in transportation, housing, teaching, and healthcare are necessary to ensure sustainable economical growth in emerging countries.

During Robert McNamara’s 13 years at the World Banking company, he introduced central changes, most notably, shifting the Bank’southward economical development policies toward targeted poverty reduction.[i]
Prior to his tenure at the World Banking concern, poverty did not receive substantial attention equally part of international and national economical development; the focus of development had been on industrialization and infrastructure.[one]
Poverty also came to be redefined as a status faced by people rather than countries.[one]
According to Martha Finnemore, the World Banking concern under McNamara’s tenure “sold” states poverty reduction “through a mixture of persuasion and coercion.”[i]

Economical evolution goals


The development of a state has been associated with different concepts but generally encompasses economic growth through college productivity,[xiv]
political systems that stand for every bit accurately as possible the preferences of its citizens,[xv]
the extension of rights to all social groups and the opportunities to get them[17]
and the proper functionality of institutions and organizations that are able to attend more technically and logistically complex tasks (i.eastward. enhance taxes and evangelize public services).[18]
These processes describe the State’south capabilities to manage its economy, polity, guild and public administration.[xx]
By and large, economic development policies try to solve issues in these topics.

With this in mind, economic development is typically associated with improvements in a variety of areas or indicators (such every bit literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates), that may exist causes of economical development rather than consequences of specific economic development programs. For example, health and education improvements have been closely related to economic growth, just the causality with economical development may non be obvious. In whatsoever case, it is important to non expect that particular economical development programs be able to fix many bug at once as that would exist establishing unsurmountable goals for them that are highly unlikely they can accomplish. Any development policy should prepare limited goals and a gradual approach to avoid falling victim to something Prittchet, Woolcock and Andrews call ‘premature load bearing’.[20]

Many times the economic development goals of specific countries cannot be reached because they lack the State’southward capabilities to do so. For case, if a nation has petty capacity to carry out basic functions like security and policing or core service delivery it is unlikely that a plan that wants to foster a gratuitous-trade zone (special economical zones) or distribute vaccinations to vulnerable populations can attain their goals. This has been something disregarded by multiple international organizations, aid programs and even participating governments who attempt to carry out ‘best practices’ from other places in a carbon-copy manner with petty success. This isomorphic mimicry –adopting organizational forms that take been successful elsewhere but that only hide institutional dysfunction without solving it on the domicile country –tin can contribute to getting countries stuck in ‘capability traps’ where the country does not accelerate in its development goals.[20]
An example of this can be seen through some of the criticisms of foreign aid and its success rate at helping countries develop.[
citation needed

Beyond the incentive compatibility bug that can happen to foreign aid donations –that strange assistance granting countries keep to requite information technology to countries with little results of economical growth[21]
but with corrupt leaders that are aligned with the granting countries’ geopolitical interests and agenda[22]
–in that location are bug of fiscal fragility associated to receiving an important amount of authorities revenues through foreign aid. Governments that can raise a meaning amount of revenue from this source are less accountable to their citizens (they are more than democratic) as they take less pressure to legitimately apply those resource.[23]
But every bit it has been documented for countries with an abundant supply of natural resource such every bit oil,[24]
countries whose authorities budget consists largely of foreign aid donations and not regular taxes are less likely to take incentives to develop effective public institutions.[23]
This in plow tin undermine the land’south efforts to develop.

Baca :   Apa Saran Kalian Agar Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia Bisa Lebih Cepat

Economic development policies


In its broadest sense, policies of economic evolution encompass 3 major areas:

  • Governments undertaking to encounter broad economic objectives such as price stability, high employment, and sustainable growth. Such efforts include budgetary and fiscal policies, regulation of fiscal institutions, merchandise, and tax policies.
  • Programs that provide infrastructure and services such as highways, parks, affordable housing, criminal offense prevention, and K–12 educational activity.
  • Task creation and retention through specific efforts in business finance, marketing, neighborhood development, workforce development, pocket-sized business evolution, business organisation retention and expansion,[25]
    technology transfer, and real estate evolution. This tertiary category is a main focus of economical development professionals.

Contractionary budgetary policy is a tool used by cardinal banks to slow down a country’s economic growth. An example would be raising interest rates to decrease lending. In the United states, the use of contractionary monetary policy has increased women’s unemployment.[26]
Seguino and Heintz uses a panel dataset for each 50 states with unemployment, labor force participation by race, and annual labor market statistics. In addition, for contractionary monetary policy, they utilize the federal funds rate, the short-term interest rates charged to banks. Seguino and Heintz Seguino concludes that the impact of a 1 per centum point increment in the federal funds rate relative to white and black women’due south unemployment is 0.015 and 0.043, respectively[27]

I growing understanding in economic evolution is the promotion of regional clusters and a thriving metropolitan economic system. In today’south global landscape, location is vitally important and becomes a key in competitive advantage.[
citation needed

International trade and substitution rates are primal bug in economic development. Currencies are often either under-valued or over-valued, resulting in trade surpluses or deficits. Furthermore, the growth of globalization has linked economic development with trends on international trade and participation in global value bondage (GVCs) and international fiscal markets. The last financial crisis had a huge outcome on economies in developing countries. Economist Jayati Ghosh states that it is necessary to make fiscal markets in developing countries more resilient by providing a diverseness of financial institutions. This could also add to financial security for minor-scale producers.[28]



Economic development has evolved into a professional person manufacture of highly specialized practitioners. The practitioners accept two key roles: one is to provide leadership in policy-making, and the other is to administer policy, programs, and projects. Economical development practitioners mostly work in public offices on the state, regional, or municipal level, or in public-individual partnerships organizations that may exist partially funded by local, regional, state, or federal tax money. These economic evolution organizations role equally individual entities and in some cases as departments of local governments. Their part is to seek out new economic opportunities and retain their existing business wealth.

At that place are numerous other organizations whose primary office is not economic evolution that work in partnership with economical developers. They include the news media, foundations, utilities, schools, health care providers, religion-based organizations, and colleges, universities, and other education or research institutions.

Development indicators and indices


In that location are diverse types of macroeconomic and sociocultural indicators or “metrics” used by economists and geographers to assess the relative economical advancement of a given region or nation. The World Bank’s “World Development Indicators” are compiled annually from officially recognized international sources and include national, regional and global estimates.[29]

Gross domestic product per capita – growing development population


Gross domestic product per capita is gross domestic product divided past mid-year population. Gross domestic product is the sum of gross value added past all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidizes not included in the value of the products.[30]
Information technology is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and deposition of natural resources.

Mod transportation


European evolution economists have argued that the existence of modern transportation networks- such every bit high-speed rail infrastructure constitutes a significant indicator of a land’s economical advancement: this perspective is illustrated notably through the Bones Rail Transportation Infrastructure Alphabetize (known as BRTI Index)[31]
and related models such as the (Modified) Rail Transportation Infrastructure Index (RTI).[32]

Introduction of The GDI and Jewel


In an attempt to create an indicator that would help mensurate gender equality, the UN has created two measures: the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). These indicators were starting time introduced in the 1995 UNDP Homo Development Report.[33]

Gender Empowerment Measure


The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) focuses on accumulation various indicators that focus on capturing the economical, political, and professional person gains made by women. The Gem is composed of just 3 variables: income earning power, share in professional and managerial jobs, and share of parliamentary seats.[34]

Baca :   Lowongan Kerja Ekonomi Pembangunan 2014

Gender Development Index


The Gender Development (GDI) measures the gender gap in human development achievements. It takes disparity betwixt men and women into business relationship in through three variables, health, knowledge, and living standards.[35]

See also


  • Constitutional economics
  • Critical juncture theory
  • Commerce
  • Development finance institution
  • European Free Trade Association
  • European Union
  • Education
  • Economics
  • Financial deepening
  • Gender and development
  • Greenish Development
  • Infrastructure
  • International development
  • International Monetary Fund
  • N–South divide
  • Arrangement for Economic Co-functioning and Development
  • Private sector development
  • Socioeconomics
  • United nations Development Program
  • Universities
  • World Depository financial institution Group



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    Lant Pritchett, Michael Woolcock & Matt Andrews (2013). Looking Like a State: Techniques of Persistent Failure in State Capability for Implementation,
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Further reading


  • Pokrovskii, Vladimir (2018).
    Econodynamics. The Theory of Social Production. Springer, Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London-New York.

  • Vâsquez, Ian (2008). “Development, Economical”. In Hamowy, Ronald (ed.).
    The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Grand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 120–23. doi:x.4135/9781412965811.n76. ISBN978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.

External links


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