Pembangunan Ekonomi Power Point Presentation

Pembangunan Ekonomi Power Point Presentation

Content using a combination of forms

Examples of individual content forms that can be combined in multimedia



All the same images

Muybridge horse gallop animated 2.gif

Scroll switch mouse.jpg

Video footage


is a course of communication that uses a combination of unlike content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a unmarried interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media, such as printed fabric or audio recordings, which features little to no interaction between users. Popular examples of multimedia include video podcasts, audio slideshows and animated videos. Multimedia also contains the principles and application of effective interactive communication such as the edifice blocks of software, hardware, and other technologies.

Multimedia can be recorded for playback on computers, laptops, smartphones, and other electronic devices, either on demand or in existent fourth dimension (streaming). In the early years of multimedia, the term “rich media” was synonymous with interactive multimedia. Over time, hypermedia extensions brought multimedia to the World wide web.



The term
was coined by vocaliser and artist Bob Goldstein (later ‘Bobb Goldsteinn’) to promote the July 1966 opening of his “Lightworks at L’Oursin” show in Southampton, Long Island.[one]
Goldstein was perhaps aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had 2 years previously discussed a new approach to fine art-making he called “intermedia”.[2]

While the term didn’t be yet, the idea of
could be taken dorsum to when the 19th century composer Richard Wagner believed in the concept of
Gesamtkunstwerk, meaning ‘total artwork’. Wagner strived to combine multiple fine art forms- opera, drama, music – to create a perfect synthesis on phase. He looked down on the Thou Opera at the fourth dimension, which emphasized private talent, rather than the consummate work as a whole. By combining these art forms, Wagner believed the most profound art could be fabricated.[3]

On Baronial 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of
borrowed the terminology, reporting: “Brainchild of vocal scribe-comic Bob (‘Washington Foursquare’) Goldstein, the ‘Lightworks’ is the latest
music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare.”[4]
Two years later on, in 1968, the term “multimedia” was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein’southward producers at L’Oursin.

Multimedia (multi-image) setup for the 1988 Ford New Car Announcement Testify, August 1987, Detroit, MI

In the intervening forty years, the discussion has taken on dissimilar meanings. In the belatedly 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s ‘multimedia’ took on its current meaning.

In the 1993 first edition of
Multimedia: Making Information technology Work, Tay Vaughan declared “Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound, blitheness, and video that is delivered by computer. When you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is
interactive multimedia. When yous provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes

The German language social club Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the discussion’southward significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding information technology the title of German ‘Word of the Year’ in 1995.[6]
The institute summed upward its rationale by stating “[Multimedia] has become a central discussion in the wonderful new media globe”.[7]

In common usage,
refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, even so images, audio, and text in such a style that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls inside this definition as understood by millions. Some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called “multimedia” computers considering they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video, picture, and sound information. That era saw also a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs. A standard CD-ROM can hold on average 700 megabytes of data, while the maximum size a 3.v inch floppy deejay can concur is 2.viii megabytes, with an average of 1.44 megabytes.

The term “video”, if not used exclusively to depict motion photography, is cryptic in multimedia terminology.
is oftentimes used to describe the file format, commitment format, or presentation format instead of
which is used to distinguish motion photography from
of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are often not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video. Likewise, unmarried forms of data content with unmarried methods of information processing (east.g. not-interactive sound) are often chosen multimedia, peradventure to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken’southward ModulArt brings ii key elements of musical limerick and picture show into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making
an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may also be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media.

In mod times, a multimedia device can exist referred to an electronic device, such equally a smartphone, a videogame system, or a reckoner. Each and everyone of these devices accept a main function, simply likewise have other uses across their intended purpose, such as reading, writing, recording video, streaming listening to music, and playing video games. This has lend them to be called “multimedia devices”. While previous media was always local, many are now handled through web based solutions, particularly streaming.

Major characteristics


Multimedia presentations
are presentations featuring multiple types of media. The unlike types of media tin include videos, animations, audio or photos. Through these different types of media, they can convey a message to their target audience and effectively communicate with them. One example that is commonly used is video. Videos are a neat visual example to utilise in multimedia presentation considering information technology can create a visual aid to an idea that is mentioned. If used in an instruction setting, this can do good students, as they would be able to retain the information amend. Another case of multimedia presentations used is charts and graphs. With the help of charts and graphs, this can allow the presenter to show their audition trends and the data associated with their research. This can give the audience a visual idea of how the company is doing.[9]

Multimedia games and simulations
may be used in a physical surroundings with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.

The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may exist intended to enhance the users’ experience, for example to make information technology easier and faster to convey information. Or in amusement or art, combine an array of artistic insights that includes elements from different art forms to engage, inspire, or captivate an audience.

A lasershow is a alive multimedia functioning.

Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible past combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative stop-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Spider web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia “experience” to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.

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Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories:

  • Linear active content progresses ofttimes without any navigational control, just focusing on the user to watch the unabridged piece by involving college levels of emotional and sensory stimulation based on what’southward existence shown as a cinema presentation;
  • Non-linear uses interactivity to control progress as with a video game or self-paced computer-based training and then that the deportment made will exist based on how the user interacts within the simulated world. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content.

Multimedia presentations tin be live or recorded:

  • A recorded presentation may permit interactivity via a navigation system;
  • A live multimedia presentation may permit interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.



A presentation using PowerPoint. Corporate presentations may combine all forms of media content.

Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but non limited to, advertisements, art, instruction, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, business, scientific research and spatial temporal applications. Several examples are as follows:

Artistic industries


Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to entertainment, to commercial art, to journalism, to media and software services provided for whatever of the industries listed beneath. An private multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. Asking for their skills range from technical, to analytical, to creative.

Commercial uses


Much of the electronic old and new media used by commercial artists in multimedia.. Advertising companies rely heavily on social interfaces and boob tube to promote products. Using these platforms, they are able to limited their message or persuade a targeted audience. Business organisation to business and interoffice communications are often adult past creative services firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven up training. Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and nonprofit services applications likewise. In improver, the prominence of information mining within multimedia platforms in order to adjust marketing techniques based on the information they mine is a crucial and notable practise of commercial advertisement to efficiently empathize the demographic of a target audience.[10]

Entertainment and fine arts


Multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop special effects in movies and animations (VFX, 3D animation, etc.). Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs bachelor either every bit CD-ROMs or online. Video games form every bit multimedia, as such games meld blitheness, audio, and, most importantly, interactivity, to permit the histrion an immersive experience. While video games can vary in terms of animation fashion or sound type or even lack thereof, the chemical element of interactivity makes them a striking example of
interactive multimedia.
Interactive multimedia
defines multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting past as passive recipients of information. In the arts at that place are multimedia artists, whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. Another arroyo entails the creation of multimedia that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena, such as an fine art gallery. Although multimedia display textile may be volatile, the survivability of the content is as stiff as any traditional media. Digital recording material may exist just as durable and infinitely reproducible with perfect copies every fourth dimension.



In education, multimedia is used to produce reckoner-based grooming courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books similar encyclopedia and almanacs. A CBT lets the user get through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in diverse information formats.

Learning theory in the past decade has expanded dramatically because of the introduction of multimedia. Several lines of research have evolved, e.1000. cognitive load and multimedia learning.

From multimedia learning (MML) theory, David Roberts has developed a big group lecture practice using PowerPoint and based on the use of full-slide images in conjunction with a reduction of visible text (all text can exist placed in the notes view’ section of PowerPoint).[11]
The method has been applied and evaluated in 9 disciplines. In each experiment, students’ engagement and active learning take been approximately 66% greater, than with the aforementioned material being delivered using bullet points, text, and speech, corroborating a range of theories presented past multimedia learning scholars like Sweller and Mayer.[12]
The thought of media convergence is also becoming a major factor in education, specially higher pedagogy. Defined equally separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), information (and productivity applications), and video that now share resource and interact with each other, media convergence is speedily changing the curriculum in universities all over the globe. Higher instruction has been implementing the use of social media applications such equally Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, etc. to increase pupil collaboration and develop new processes in how data tin can be conveyed to students.[13]

Educational technology


Multimedia provides students with an alternate means of acquiring knowledge designed to heighten teaching and learning through various mediums and platforms.[
commendation needed

In the 1960s, technology began to expand into the classrooms through devices such as screens and telewriters.[xiv]
This engineering allows students to learn at their own pace and gives teachers the power to observe the individual needs of each student. The capacity for multimedia to exist used in multi-disciplinary settings is structured around the idea of creating a hands-on learning environment through the employ of engineering.[
commendation needed

Lessons can exist tailored to the subject matter also as be personalized to the students’ varying levels of cognition on the topic. Learning content can exist managed through activities that use and take advantage of multimedia platforms.[
citation needed

This kind of usage of modern multimedia encourages interactive communication between students and teachers and opens feedback channels, introducing an agile learning procedure especially with the prevalence of new media and social media.[15]
Engineering has impacted multimedia equally it is largely associated with the use of computers or other electronic devices and digital media due to its capabilities apropos research, communication, problem-solving through simulations and feedback opportunities.[16]
The innovation of technology in education through the utilise of multimedia allows for diversification among classrooms to enhance the overall learning experience for students.[17]


Multimedia is a robust education methodology within the social piece of work context. The v different multimedia which supports the education procedure are narrative media, interactive media, communicative media, adaptive media, and productive media. Opposite to long-continuing belief, multimedia technology in social work teaching existed before the prevalence of the internet. It takes the course of images, audio, and video into the curriculum.

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First introduced to social work teaching by Seabury & Maple in 1993, multimedia technology is utilized to teach social work do skills including interviewing, crunch intervention, and grouping work. In comparing with conventional teaching method, including face up-to-face up courses, multimedia education shortens transportation time, increases cognition and confidence in a richer and more than authentic context for learning, generates interaction between online users, and enhances understanding of conceptual materials for novice students.

In an endeavor to examine the bear upon of multimedia technology on students’ study, A. Elizabeth Cauble & Linda P. Thurston conducted a inquiry in which Building Family unit Foundations (BFF), an interactive multimedia grooming platform, was utilized to assess social work students’ reactions to multimedia technology on variables of knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The results states that respondents bear witness a substantial increase in academic knowledge, confidence, and attitude. Multimedia also benefits students because information technology brings expert to students online, fits students’ schedule, allows students to choose courses that suit them.

Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning suggests, “people learn more from words and pictures than from words alone.” According to Mayer and other scholars, multimedia engineering stimulates people’south brains past implementing visual and auditory effects, and thereby assists online users to acquire efficiently. Researchers suggest that when users constitute dual channels while learning, they tend to empathize and memorize better. Mixed literature of this theory are still nowadays in the field of multimedia and social piece of work.[18]

Language communication


With the spread and development of the English language effectually the world, multimedia has get an of import manner of communicating between different people and cultures. Multimedia Technology creates a platform where language can be taught. The traditional form of teaching English equally a 2nd Linguistic communication in classrooms take drastically changed with the prevalence of technology, making easier for students to obtain language learning skills. Multimedia motivates students to learn more languages through audio, visual and animation support. It also helps create English contexts since an of import aspect of learning a language is developing their grammar, vocabulary and knowledge of pragmatics and genres. In addition, cultural connections in terms of forms, contexts, meanings and ideologies have to be constructed.[
commendation needed

By improving thought patterns, multimedia develops students’ communicative competence by improving their capacity to sympathise the language.[21]
One of the studies, carried out past Izquierdo, Simard and Pulido, presented the correlation between “Multimedia Didactics (MI) and learners’ 2nd language (L2)”[22]
and its effects on learning behavior. Their findings based on Gardner’s theory of the “socio-educational model of learner motivation and attitudes”, the study shows that in that location is easier access to language learning materials also as increased motivation with MI along with the employ of Computer-Assisted Language Learning.



Newspaper companies all over are trying to encompass the new phenomenon by implementing its practices in their work. While some have been slow to come up around, other major newspapers like
The New York Times,
Us Today
The Washington Postal service
are setting the precedent for the positioning of the newspaper industry in a globalized globe. To go along up with the irresolute world of multimedia, journalistic practices are adopting and utilizing different functions of multimedia through the inclusions of visuals such as varying sound, video, text, etc. in their writings.[23]

News reporting is not limited to traditional media outlets. Freelance journalists can make employ of different new media to produce multimedia pieces for their news stories. It engages global audiences and tells stories with technology, which develops new communication techniques for both media producers and consumers. The Common Language Project, later on renamed to The Seattle Globalist, is an instance of this type of multimedia journalism production.

Multimedia reporters who are mobile (usually driving around a community with cameras, audio and video recorders, and laptop computers) are oftentimes referred to equally mojos, from



Software engineers may utilize multimedia in computer simulations for anything from entertainment to preparation such as armed forces or industrial preparation. Multimedia for software interfaces are often washed as a collaboration between creative professionals and software engineers. Multimedia helps expand the didactics practices that can be found in engineering to let for more innovated methods to not only educated future engineers, but to assistance evolve the scope of understanding of where multimedia can be used in specialized engineer careers like software engineers.[24]

Multimedia is likewise allowing major car manufactures, such as Ford, and General Motors, to expand the design, and safety standards of their cars. Past using a game engine and virtual reality glasses, these companies are able to examination the safety features, and the design of the car, before a prototype is fifty-fifty made. Building a car virtually reduces the time it takes to produce new vehicles, cutting down on the time needed to test designs, and allowing the designers to make changes in real time. It also reduces expenses, since with a virtual car making real globe prototypes is no longer needed.[25]

Mathematical and scientific research


In mathematical and scientific enquiry, multimedia is mainly used for modeling and simulation. For instance, a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate information technology to arrive at a new substance. Representative research can exist institute in journals such as the
Journal of Multimedia. One well known example of this being applied would exist in the pic Interstellar where Executive Director Kip Thorne helped create ane of the most realistic depictions of a blackhole in film. The visual effects squad under Paul Franklin took Kip Thorne’south mathematical data and practical it into their ain visual effects engine called “Double Negative Gravitational Renderer” a.1000.a “Gargantua”, to create a “real” blackhole, used in the last cutting. Later on the visual effects team went onto publish a blackhole study



Medical professionals and students have a wide variety of means to learn new techniques and procedures through interactive media and online courses and lectures. The methods of conveying information to students have drastically evolved with the help of multimedia. From the 1800s to today, lessons are commonly taught using chalkboards. Projected aids, such equally the epidiascope and slide projectors, were introduced into the classrooms effectually the 1960s.[26]
With the growing use of computers, the medical field has begun to incorporate new devices and procedures to assist in education students, performing procedures, and analyzing patient data. As well every bit providing that data in a meaningful fashion to the patients.[27]

Virtual reality


Virtual reality is a platform for multimedia in which information technology merges all categories of multimedia into one virtual environs. It has gained much more attention over recent years following technological advancements and is becoming much more commonly used present for various uses like virtual showrooms and video games. Virtual reality was kickoff introduced in 1957 past cinematographer Morton Heilig in the form of an arcade-style booth chosen Sensorama. The commencement virtual reality headset was created by American estimator scientist Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull, his student, in 1968. Virtual reality is used for educational and also recreational purposes like watching movies, interactive video games, simulations etc. Ford Motor Company uses this technology to prove customers the interior and exterior of their cars via their Immersion Lab.[28]
In Pima County, Arizona their police force is trained by using Virtual Reality to create scenarios for law to practice in.[28]
Many video game platforms now support virtual reality engineering science, including Sony’southward PlayStation, Nintendo’s Switch equally office of their Labo project, every bit well as the Oculus VR headsets that tin be used for Xbox and PC gaming, with it existence more preferable to pair with a PC due to it but beingness compatible with the original Xbox I and providing express capabilities.

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Augmented reality


Augmented reality became widely pop only in the 21st century; notwithstanding, some of the before versions of such were things like the Sega Genesis Activator Controller back in 1992 which allowed users to literally stand in an octagon and control in game movement with physical movement or to stretch back even further the R.O.B. NES Robot back in 1984 which with its array of accessories was able to too provide users with the sensation of belongings a firearm. These multimedia input devices are among some of the earliest of the augmented reality devices by allowing users to input commands to facilitate a different user feel.

While virtual reality strives to exist a totally immersive multimedia experience, completely replacing reality with a digital simulation, augmented reality limits itself to overlaying digital output or content onto the existent world. Augmented reality tin can be defined every bit “an enhanced version of reality created by the utilize of applied science to overlay digital data on an paradigm of something being viewed through a device (such equally a smartphone camera)”.[29]
Augmented reality systems tin be used for tasks such as overlaying speed, altitude and heading information on an aircraft Heads-Up Display, or projecting images or animations into a real-life scene, such every bit in the game Pokémon Go.[30]
Sony uses augmented reality technology in their PlayStation 5 controllers with their haptic feedback[31]
feature to give users a greater sense of immersion while playing video games. For instance, while users are playing Telephone call of Duty and desire to shoot their gun at the enemy, the triggers on the controller volition provide tension to the player that will get in feel similar they are actually pulling the trigger on a gun. The game Astro’s Playroom that comes with a PlayStation 5 console showcases the different ways a game can make players feel more than immersed and the depth and potential that the haptic feedback feature has for the hereafter of gaming.

Associations and conferences


In Europe, the reference organisation for the multimedia industry is the European Multimedia Associations Convention.

Scholarly conferences most multimedia include:

  • ACM Multimedia
  • IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo

Run into also


  • Artmedia
  • Audiovisual
  • Multi-paradigm
  • Multimedia cartography
  • Multimedia Messaging Service
  • Multimedia search
  • New media art
  • Non-linear media
  • Postliterate society
  • Transmedia storytelling
  • Social media
  • Universal multimedia access
  • Video Game
  • Web documentary
  • Kraftwerk



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External links


  • Media related to Multimedia at Wikimedia Eatables
  • History of Multimedia from the University of Calgary
  • Multimedia in

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